VÚDPaP was established by the resolution of the Chair of the Slovak National Parliament on November 26, 1963, which took force on January 1, 1964. The idea to establish a working place that would deal with psychological research of a child was implanted by PhDr. Miroslav T. Bažány (university lecturer) who became its first director. The Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology worked, from its very beginning, in the resort of education, and the Slovak Ministry of Education has fulfilled the role of VÚDPaP's constitutor since 1969. The Institute had its competency for the whole territory of former Czechoslovakia until the end of 1992.
Among the tasks of the first VÚDPaP's bylaws were:
- research of formation of child mentality and research of social determination of this process,
- research of mental development of disabled children and of children with learning and behavior disorders,
- elaboration of basic theoretical issues of psychological educational care for children and youth; and professional management of Psychological Educational (Guidance) Clinic in Bratislava,
- concentration of scientific information from the area of child psychology, pathopsychology and social pathology,
- development, verification and standardization of psycho-diagnostic methodologies.
The last task required, soon after the establishment of VÚDPaP, the creation of an independent working place (Psycho-diagnostic and didactic tests - Psycho-diagnostics a.s., today), so the task was taken out of the bylaws. The Psychological Educational (Guidance) Clinic in Bratislava was expanded by other such clinics in other cities until the whole system of the educational counseling was developed (its individual workplaces are called, since 1976, as pedagogic - psychological counseling centers). VÚDPaP was authorized to methodically manage this system.
In the beginning VÚDPaP had 25 workers, but the number increased to 57 five years later, and it was 74 in 1989. The structure of the Institute underwent changes, however, during the first 25 years, the following departments belonged to the key organization units: department of developmental psychology, department of social development psychology, department of pathopsychology, and the center of scientific information (with scientific library). Since 1966, VÚDPaP has continuously published the professional journal Psychology and Pathopsychology of Child.
In 1989 the then representatives of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Socialist Republic decided to cancel the Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology even in spite of protests of scientific community and professional public. Their opinion was that psychology should more contribute in the solution of the tasks of the socialist pedagogy, so they merged VÚDPaP with the Research Pedagogic Institute, and subordinated us under the management of the Research Pedagogic Institute (Research Pedagogic and Psychological Institute was thus crated). Such a situation existed one year. On July 1, 1990, the Minister of Education of Slovak Republic rebuilt the former independence of both institutes.
Since 1991 VÚDPaP has been included in the grant system of the Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic and of SAV (Slovak Academy of Sciences) within the scope of which it belongs to the most successful psychological workplaces. Until 2005, the Institute solved 27 projects and presently it solves 3 projects, which are approved by the Scientific Grant Agency.